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Young adults in U.S. among world leaders in unhealthy weight, researchers say



Nov. 5 (UPI) — Young adults in the United States are among the world’s heaviest with a body-mass index of 25.4, an analysis published Thursday by The Lancet found.

This suggests they are among the global leaders in a key indicator of poor overall health, the researchers said, as a BMI of 25 or above is considered overweight for adults, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

BMI is calculated by taking a person’s weight in kilograms and dividing it by height in square meters. It generally is viewed as the most accurate method for measuring body weight in the context of height to identify those who are overweight or obese, the CDC said.

“National nutrition and health programs should be extended to older children and adolescents to enable healthy growth and development,” Majid Ezzati, co-author of the Lancet analysis, said in a statement.

“We need to improve access to affordable, healthy foods at school and in the community both, through healthy food vouchers and free healthy school meal programs for low-income families, and to protect children from unhealthy foods through regulations and taxes,” said Ezzati, professor of global environmental health at Imperial College London.

The average BMI among 19-year-olds in the United States, 25.4, places them just outside the global Top 10 of nations ranked by BMI.

Average height and BMI in countries reflects the quality of nutrition and healthiness of the environment during childhood and adolescence, and are important indicators of health and development, Ezzati and his colleagues said.

BMI accounts for weight gain due to being taller, and therefore measures having healthy weight for an individual’s height versus being overweight or underweight, the researchers said.

Having low height or excessively low BMI increases the risk of illness and premature death, impairs cognitive development and reduces educational performance and work productivity in later life, they said.

Similarly, high BMI in childhood and adolescence has been linked with a greater risk, and earlier onset of, chronic diseases like type 2 diabetes and high blood pressure.

For this analysis, Ezzati and his colleagues analyzed physical growth trends for 200 countries worldwide over the past 35 years, using data from 2,181 studies on more than 65 million children and adolescents ages 5 to 19.

The researchers focused on 19-year-olds in order to track how height and BMI through childhood and adolescence impact these indicators of health into adulthood, with 19 marking the end of “school ages” and the beginning of adulthood in most countries.

The countries with the tallest 19-year-olds included the Netherlands, Montenegro, Iceland and Denmark, the researchers said.

Countries with the shortest 19-year-olds were in South Asia and Southeast Asia, Latin America and East Africa, they said.

The highest average BMIs among 19-year-olds were found in the Pacific islands, the Middle East and the United States, while “unhealthy growth trends” — with too little height gain and excess weight gains — were seen in New Zealand, the United States, Malaysia, Mexico and sub-Saharan Africa, researchers said.

At the other extreme, the BMI of 19-year-olds was lowest in countries in south Asia and east and central Africa, the researchers said.

Growth patterns were healthiest — with a larger gain in height than BMI — for girls living in South Korea, Vietnam and Saudi Arabia, among others, and for boys in Central Europe and Western Europe, they said.

American 19-year-olds had the 16th-highest BMI worldwide and ranked 47th in height, the data showed.

“These massive global disparities reflect the imbalance between successful efforts to improve nutrition and growth during the early years compared with school-aged children and adolescents, who have been largely overlooked in many countries,” Ezzati said.

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‘Green prescriptions’ could cancel mental health benefits for some



So-called “green prescriptions” may end up being counterproductive for people with mental health conditions, researchers say.

Spending time in nature is believed to benefit mental health, so some doctors are beginning to “prescribe” outdoor time for their patients.

That led researchers to investigate whether being in nature helps actually does help people with issues such as anxiety and depression. They collected data from more than 18,000 people in 18 countries.

The takeaway: Time in nature does provide several benefits for people with mental health conditions, but only if they choose on their own to visit green spaces.

While being advised to spend time outdoors can encourage such activity, it can also undermine the potential emotional benefits, according to the authors of the study published this month in the journal Scientific Reports.

The researchers said they were surprised to find that people with depression were spending time in nature as often as folks with no mental health issues, and that people with anxiety were doing so much more often.

While in nature, those with depression and anxiety tended to feel happy and reported low anxiety. But those benefits appeared to be undermined when the visits were done at others’ urging, the investigators found.

The more external pressure people with depression and anxiety felt to visit nature, the less motivated they were to do so and the more anxious they felt.

“These findings are consistent with wider research that suggests that urban natural environments provide spaces for people to relax and recover from stress,” said study leader Michelle Tester-Jones, a postdoctoral research associate at the University of Exeter in the United Kingdom.

But the findings also show that health care practitioners and loved ones should be sensitive about recommending time in nature for people who have mental health issues.

“It could be helpful to encourage them to spend more time in places that people already enjoy visiting, so they feel comfortable and can make the most of the experience,” Tester-Jones said in a university news release.

More information

For more on the benefits of green spaces, go to the National Recreation and Park Association.

Copyright 2020 HealthDay. All rights reserved.

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Study: Nearly half of ‘essential workers’ in U.S. at risk for severe COVID-19



Nov. 9 (UPI) — Nearly half of those classified as “essential workers” in the United States are at increased risk for severe COVID-19, according to an analysis published Monday by JAMA Internal Medicine.

This means that more than 74 million workers and those with whom they live could be at risk for serious illness, based on disease risk guidelines developed by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the researchers said.

“Many parts of the country face high and rising infection rates, [and] we should not think about work exposure and health risks in isolation, given that workers and persons at increased risk often live in the same households,” study co-author Thomas M. Selden told UPI.

“Insofar as we can reduce the prevalence of COVID-19 in our communities, we can reduce the extent to which policymakers have to choose between the economy and keeping the population safe,” said Selden, an economist with the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services’ Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.

Since the COVID-19 pandemic spread to the United States in March, states and cities across the country have instituted lockdown measures designed to limit the spread of the disease.

Many of these measures entailed closing schools and non-essential businesses, with only banks, grocery stores, pharmacies and other businesses deemed to provide vital services allowed to stay open.

For this study, Selden and his colleagues analyzed data on the U.S. workforce to examine how many people were in essential jobs, how often they were able to work at home, their risk for severe COVID-19 and the potential health risks for their household members.

Of the more than 157 million workers across the country, 72% are in jobs deemed essential — based on U.S. Department of Homeland Security criteria — and more than three-fourths of all essential workers are unable to work at home, Selden said.

Essential workers include those in the medical and healthcare, telecommunications, information technology systems, defense, food and agriculture, transportation and logistics and energy, water and wastewater industries, as well as those in law enforcement and public works, the DHS criteria stipulates.

The study notes that up to 60% of these workers have underlying health issues, placing them at increased risk for severe COVID-19 if they get infected, as defined by U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines.

Those with diabetes, heart disease, high blood pressure and chronic respiratory conditions like asthma are considered to be at high risk for serious illness, the CDC says.

Based on these findings, between roughly 57 million and 74 million adults working in on-site essential jobs — and their families — are at increased risk for serious illness, Selden and his colleagues estimated.

“Policymakers face important decisions about how to balance the economic benefits of keeping workers employed and the public health benefits of protecting those with increased risk of severe COVID-19,” Selden said.

“These issues arise in the context of decisions to close segments of the economy and decisions about how to distribute vaccines, which will initially be available only with limited supply, [and] become all the more difficult when the prevalence of infection rises in parts of the country,” he said.

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Study: Hydroxychloroquine no better than placebo for hospitalized COVID-19 patients



Nov. 9 (UPI) — COVID-19 patients treated with hydroxychloroquine showed no signs of significant improvement in “clinical status” compared with those given a placebo, a study published Monday by JAMA found.

Patients given a five-day course of the drug were scored as “category six” based on the World Health Organization’s seven-category COVID Ordinal Outcomes Scale, the same as those given a placebo, the researchers said.

Also, 28 days after they started treatment, 10.4% of those treated with hydroxychloroquine died, just slightly lower than the 10.6% fatality rate in the placebo group.

“The results show that hydroxychloroquine did not help patients recover from COVID-19,” study co-author Dr. Wesley H. Self told UPI.

“In the study, patients treated with hydroxychloroquine and those treated with a placebo had nearly identical outcomes, [so] I do not foresee any role for hydroxychloroquine in acutely ill patients hospitalized with COVID-19,” said Self, an infectious disease specialist at Vanderbilt University Medical Center.

Hydroxychloroquine is an immunosuppressive and anti-parasitic drug that is used to treat malaria.

Early in the COVID-19 pandemic, it was touted by President Donald Trump and others as a potential treatment for the virus, despite the lack of any scientific data supporting its use.

Given its effectiveness helping those sickened with malaria — a mosquito-borne infection — to recover, “there was a strong rationale for why hydroxychloroquine may have been beneficial for patients with COVID-19,” according to Self.

However, in July, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration warned against the drug’s use in the treatment of those infected with the new coronavirus, due to potentially serious heart-related side effects.

For this study, Self and his colleagues treated 433 COVID-19 patients at 34 hospitals across the United States with either the drug or a placebo for a period of five days.

Patients assigned to the hydroxychloroquine group received 400 milligrams of the drug in pill form twice a day for the first two doses and then 200 mg. in pill form twice a day for the next eight doses, for a total of 10 doses over the five days.

All of the patients were then assessed based on the WHO’s COVID Ordinal Outcomes Scale, which categorizes those infected according to disease severity.

Most of the patients in both the hydroxycholorquine group and the placebo group were in “category six,” meaning they were hospitalized and receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation or invasive mechanical ventilation to maintain their breathing, the researchers said.

“Our results, especially when combined from other studies conducted in the United Kingdom and Brazil, are good evidence that hydroxychloroquine does not provide benefit for patients hospitalized with COVID-19,” Self said.

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