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Wristband ‘zapper’ might help calm Tourette syndrome

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A wristband that zaps a key nerve may help quell the uncontrollable tics of Tourette syndrome, according to British researchers.

“We think we’ve come up with a safe and effective piece of technology that we believe is relatively cheap that will give control over tics to people with Tourette syndrome,” said lead researcher Stephen Jackson, a professor of cognitive neuroscience at the University of Nottingham.

Tics are involuntary movements and sounds such as throat-clearing, blinking and even blurting out swear words associated with the disorder. Researchers say a technique called brain oscillation helps suppress the rhythmic electrical brain activity associated with tics.

“By delivering electrical pulses to the peripheral nervous system, we reduced both the frequency of tics and their intensity, as well as the self-perceived urge to tic so many people report having before they tic,” Jackson said.

Brain oscillation shuts down the brain impulses that cause tics and returns them to a quiet state, he said.

Jackson’s team tested the approach in 19 people with Tourette syndrome who wore a specialized wristband.

Participants were randomly given a minute of constant electric pulses to their right wrist and one-minute periods with no stimulation.

Stimulation reduced the tics and also the urge to tic, the researchers found. The benefit was greatest in participants with the most severe tics.

And the stimulation had a cumulative effect, Jackson said. The more times it was used, the bigger the benefit.

The need for this type of treatment is crucial, he said.
Medications used to treat Tourette have side effects and only work in about half of patients, Jackson said, so many parents don’t want their kids to take them. Another treatment, involving implantation of electrodes in the brain, is a surgical procedure with its own short- and long-term risks. And, he said, behavioral therapy can be hard to come by.

Jackson and his team are planning a larger trial with an aim of developing a wristband that patients can activate whenever they feel a tic coming on.

Dr. Alessandro Di Rocco, director of the movement disorders program at Northwell Health in Great Neck, N.Y., reviewed the findings.
“This is an exciting study with an intriguing rationale and promising preliminary clinical data,” he said, pointing to the disruptive effect that tics have on a person’s personal and psychological well-being.

In recent years, a growing body of evidence has linked abnormal patterns of brain activity to the behavioral impulses associated with tics, Di Rocco said.

This has led to attempts to regulate the abnormal pattern with brain stimulation techniques, including invasive surgical interventions such as deep brain stimulation.

“While there is evidence that these techniques may be effective, neurosurgical intervention can lead to potentially serious complications, while other forms of external stimulation require expensive setup and can only be administered in a clinic setting,” Di Rocco said.

Using this portable, seemingly easy-to-use device to stimulate the median nerve at the wrist may disrupt the abnormal brain activity and reduce tics with few risks or side effects, he said.

“If confirmed, this type of stimulation may become an innovative, inexpensive and transformative way to treat tics and possibly other involuntary movements associated with abnormal network activation,” Di Rocco said.

The report was published June 4 in the journal Current Biology.

More information

To learn more about Tourette syndrome, visit the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Copyright 2020 HealthDay. All rights reserved.



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Low-dose electrical stimulation helps adults with dyslexia read, study finds

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Sept. 8 (UPI) — Electrical stimulation of the brain improves reading accuracy in adults with dyslexia, according to a study published Tuesday by PLOS Biology.

Transcranial alternating current stimulation, a non-invasive procedure that delivers low-dose electricity to the brain over a period of 20 minutes, was found to improve phonological processing — or ability to discern how words sound or are pronounced — and reading accuracy in 15 adults with dyslexia, the researchers said.

The beneficial effect on phonological processing was most pronounced in those individuals who had poor reading skills, while a slightly disruptive effect was observed in very good readers, they said.

Dyslexia, known commonly as a reading disorder, affects up to 10% of the population, and is characterized by lifelong difficulties with written material,” according to the researchers, who are from the University of Geneva in Switzerland.

Although several possible causes have been proposed for dyslexia, the predominant one is a phonological deficit, or a difficulty in processing word sounds, the researchers said.

The phonological deficit in dyslexia is associated with changes in rhythmic or repetitive patterns of electrical activity in the brain, specifically “low-gamma” oscillations, measuring at 30 hertz or volts, in the left auditory cortex, they said.

However, studies have yet to prove that these these oscillations affect a person’s ability to process word sounds and cause dyslexia, the researchers said.

For this study, the researchers applied transcranial alternating current stimulation over the left auditory cortex in 15 adults with dyslexia and 15 fluent readers for 20 minutes.

At a dose of 30 hertz or volts, the approach resulted in significant improvement in reading accuracy in those with dyslexia, the researchers said.

However, the same improvements were not seen following application of a higher, 60-hertz dose, they said.

The results demonstrate for the first time that low-gamma oscillatory activity causes deficits in phonemic processing and may pave the way to non-invasive treatments aimed at normalizing oscillatory function in auditory cortex in people with dyslexia, the researchers said.

They plan “to investigate whether normalizing oscillatory function in very young children could have a long-lasting effect on the organization of the reading system [and] explore even less invasive means of correcting oscillatory activity,” study co-author Silvia Marchesotti, a post-doctural researcher at the University of Geneva, said in a press release.



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Surgery may help sleep apnea patients who struggle with CPAP

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Continuous positive airway pressure may be the go-to treatment for sleep apnea, but many people struggle to use it every night. For those who cannot tolerate CPAP, new research finds that a combination of surgical techniques may bring relief.

The “multilevel” treatment includes removing the tonsils, repositioning the palate — roof of the mouth — and using radiofrequency to slightly reduce the size of the tongue. In combination, these procedures open up the airway and reduce breathing obstruction, the researchers said.

The study found that the multilevel surgery technique reduced the number of times people stopped breathing — apnea events — during sleep and improved daytime sleepiness. People also reported better quality of life after the treatment.

“Obstructive sleep apnea is common and many people cannot use the main treatments, like CPAP masks. Surgery is a valid option when an expert surgeon is involved, and it can improve outcomes,” said the study’s lead author, Dr. Stuart MacKay. He’s an honorary clinical professor of otolaryngology, head and neck surgery at University of Wollongong, in Australia.

The researchers said that nearly one billion people worldwide suffer from sleep apnea. The airway becomes blocked during sleep, and as a result people stop breathing for short periods of time, multiple times throughout the night. People with sleep apnea have a higher risk of daytime sleepiness, motor vehicle crashes, and heart disease and stroke.

CPAP does a good job at keeping your airway open as you sleep, but the treatment — including a mask and a long tube — can be hard to get used to. The study authors said only about half of people with sleep apnea try CPAP.

For the new study, the researchers recruited 102 overweight or obese people with sleep apnea from six clinical centers in Australia, who were in their 40s, on average. The goal was to see if surgery could help adults with moderate or severe obstructive sleep apnea who weren’t able to tolerate or adhere to CPAP devices.

Half of the volunteers were randomly assigned to receive the sleep apnea surgery, while the other 51 continued with medical treatment. Medical management consisted of encouraging weight loss, drinking less alcohol, changing sleep posture and medical treatment for nasal obstruction.

MacKay said the multilevel surgical technique is widely available in many parts of the world. For the patients in this study, surgeries were performed by seven experienced surgeons.

Six months after the surgical procedures, volunteers in the surgery group had about a 27% decrease in the number of apnea events at night. Those on medical treatment had just a 10% decrease.

People in the surgical group also had major improvements in levels of snoring and daytime sleepiness, as well as a boost to quality of life.

As with any surgical procedure, there are risks.

“The main risks of pain and bleeding are confined to the two weeks after surgery. Bleeding occurs in about one in every 25 patients. Long-term risks related to taste disturbance, feeling of sticking in the throat, swallow dysfunction are very rare, although they do occur transiently in some,” MacKay said.

Dr. Steven Feinsilver is director of the Center for Sleep Medicine at Lenox Hill Hospital in New York City. He said, “Sleep apnea is a very common disease, about as common as diabetes, and similar to diabetes is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular events, such as stroke and heart disease.”

He added that “CPAP works, but is a difficult treatment.”

Feinsilver said that surgery that could provide a permanent cure has long been the goal for treatment.

“This study shows that relatively minor surgery, performed in a standardized fashion by skilled surgeons, can significantly improve sleep apnea compared to ‘medical treatment’ (essentially no treatment),” he said.

But he noted that even though people reported improvement, their nighttime breathing wasn’t back in the normal range.

“This is certainly a major improvement, but it remains unclear whether outcomes (such as cardiovascular risk) will be significantly impacted,” Feinsilver said. Also, he suggested that this multilevel surgery may only be an option for a select group of patients.

The report was published online Sept. 4 in the Journal of the American Medical Association.

More information

Learn more about sleep apnea treatments from the U.S. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.

Copyright 2020 HealthDay. All rights reserved.



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COVID-19-related heart, lung issues ease over time in survivors, study shows

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Long-term heart and lung damage can occur in COVID-19 patients, but it may ease with time, according to a new study.

A second study found that COVID-19 patients recover faster if they begin rehabilitation as soon as possible after getting off a respirator or leaving intensive care.

“The bad news is that people show lung impairment from COVID-19 weeks after discharge the good news is that the impairment tends to ameliorate over time, which suggests the lungs have a mechanism for repairing themselves,” said researcher Sabina Sahanic, a clinical Ph.D. student at University Clinic in Innsbruck, Austria.

“The findings from this study show the importance of implementing structured follow-up care for patients with severe COVID-19 infection. Importantly, CT unveiled lung damage in this patient group that was not identified by lung function tests,” she said.

Both studies were presented at a virtual meeting of the European Respiratory Society.

Sahanic’s research included 86 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Austria who were enrolled between April 29 and June 9.

The patients, average age 61, were evaluated six, 12 and 24 weeks after leaving the hospital. At their first visit, more than half had at least one persistent symptom — mainly breathlessness and coughing. CT scans showed that 88% still had lung damage.

By their second visit at 12 weeks, patients’ symptoms had improved and 56% had signs of lung damage. Findings from the evaluations at 24 weeks weren’t available yet.

“Knowing how patients have been affected long-term by the coronavirus might enable symptoms and lung damage to be treated much earlier and might have a significant impact on further medical recommendations and advice,” Sahanic said in a meeting news release.

The other study included 19 patients with severe COVID-19. They spent an average of three weeks in intensive care and two weeks in a pulmonary ward before being transferred to a clinic for about three weeks of pulmonary rehabilitation.

A walking test evaluated their weekly progress. At the start of rehab, they could walk only an average of 16% of the distance they should manage to walk if healthy.

That average increased to 43% after three weeks of rehab. While a significant improvement, it’s still far below normal, the researchers noted.

“The most important finding was that patients who were admitted to pulmonary rehabilitation shortly after leaving intensive care progressed faster than those who spent a longer period in the pulmonary ward where they remained inactive,” said study author Yara Al Chikhanie. She’s a Ph.D. student at the Dieulefit Santé clinic for pulmonary rehabilitation and the Hp2 Lab at Grenoble Alps University in France.

“The sooner rehabilitation started and the longer it lasted, the faster and better was the improvement in patients’ walking and breathing capacities and muscle gain,” Al Chikhanie said in the release.

Patients who started rehabilitation in the week after coming off their ventilators progressed faster than those who were admitted after two weeks, she added. But how soon they can start rehab depends on when their doctors deem them medically stable.

“Despite the significant improvement, the average period of three weeks in rehabilitation wasn’t enough for them to recover completely,” Al Chikhanie said.

Data and conclusions presented at meetings are usually considered preliminary until peer-reviewed for publication in a medical journal.

More information

The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has more on COVID-19.

Copyright 2020 HealthDay. All rights reserved.



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