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U.S. adults having less sex, with depression, anxiety possible causes

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June 12 (UPI) — American adults — particularly younger singles — are having less sex, according to an analysis published Friday by JAMA Network Open.

In 2018, 31 percent of men and 19 percent of women between ages 18 and 24 reported no sexual activity in the previous year, researchers said. In 2001, 19 percent of men and 15 percent of women in the same age group had no sexual activity during the previous year.

“These findings deserve attention because sexually intimate relationships are important for many — though certainly not all — people’s well-being and quality of life,” study co-author Dr. Peter Ueda, a post-doctoral researcher at the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, told UPI.

The declines in sexual activity could be related to rising rates of depression and anxiety in the United States, the authors said.

For the analysis, Ueda and his colleagues reviewed data on adults 18 to 44 years old from the General Social Survey, a nationally representative sampling conducted in the United States. The analysis included information on the sexual practices of nearly 10,000 adults over an 18-year period, the researchers said.

In addition to the findings on young adults, the number of men 25 to 34 years old who reported sexual inactivity in the past year doubled to 14 percent in 2018 from 7 percent in 2000, researchers said.

The percentage of women who reported sexual inactivity in this age group also rose — to 13 percent from 7 percent over the same period.

Among all adults 35 to 44 years old, roughly the same percentage — just under 10 percent — reported sexual inactivity in the previous year during the 18-year study period, the researchers found.

Just 37 percent of sexually active men 18 to 24 years old and 50 percent of men 25 to 34 reported having sex weekly or more frequently in 2018, compared to 52 percent and 65 percent, respectively, in 2000, the researchers said.

Similarly, 54 percent of sexually active women 25 to 34 years old said they had sex weekly or more frequently in 2018, compared to 66 percent in 2000, they added.

Married adults are also having less sex, with 58 percent of married men and and 61 percent of married women saying they have sex at least once a week in 2018, compared to 71 percent and 69 percent, respectively, in 2000, the study found.

Additionally, men with lower incomes, who are unemployed or work only part-time are up to twice as likely to be sexually inactive, as are men and women who work full-time and are also students, the researchers said.

“While the mean sexual frequency among those who were sexually active may reflect their priorities and preferences, sexual inactivity may reflect an absence of sexually intimate relationships,” Ueda said.



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Almost 14 million U.S. adults vape, with use rising fastest in young

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The number of Americans using electronic cigarettes is soaring, especially among youth, a new study finds.

Nearly 14 million U.S. adults vaped in 2018, up from just over 11 million adults in 2016. The increase was seen in all socioeconomic groups, the researchers found.

“An increasing number of individuals are using e-cigarettes, especially in the younger age groups, which suggests that more individuals are becoming addicted to e-cigarettes rather than just experimenting with them, making the increased uptake among tobacco-naive individuals even more concerning,” said lead researcher Dr. Olufunmilayo Obisesan. She’s a postdoctoral fellow at Johns Hopkins Ciccarone Center for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease, in Baltimore.

“The increase in e-cigarette use among individuals with other health-risk behaviors is also concerning, particularly in light of the outbreak of e-cigarette or vaping use-associated lung injuries that has been linked to the vaping of tetrahydrocannabinoids [THC],” she said. THC is the main mind-altering ingredient found in marijuana.

Between 2016 and 2018, young adults aged 18 to 24 years old were the fastest-growing population to start using e-cigarettes. E-cigarette use in that age group increased from 9% in 2016 to 15% in 2018, and use among students increased from 6% in 2016 to 12% in 2018.

E-cigarette use even increased among people who had never smoked traditional cigarettes — from more than 1.4% in 2016 to 2.3% in 2018, the findings showed.

Also, people who were into other risky behaviors — such as drinking alcohol and smoking marijuana — were more likely to use e-cigarettes, the study authors said.

For the study, the researchers collected data on more than one million Americans who took part in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System for 2016 to 2018.

“Increase in e-cigarette use among adults in the U.S., particularly daily use, is reflective of the addictive potential of e-cigarettes,” Obisesan said. “This is very important to note, particularly for the youth and for individuals who currently use or are considering using them as a means of experimentation.”

The report was published online Sept. 8 in JAMA Internal Medicine.

Stanton Glantz, a professor of medicine at the Center for Tobacco Control, Research and Education at the University of California, San Francisco, said the increase in e-cigarette use is troubling because the health risks of e-cigarettes are similar to the risks linked to traditional cigarettes.

“I think there’s some things that are pretty clear now — one is in terms of lung disease. E-cigarettes are about as bad as cigarettes — you’re still breathing in ultrafine particles, heavy metals and flavors that have high pulmonary toxicity,” he said.

Glantz also pointed out that the damage e-cigarettes can cause in the lungs may also make COVID-19 infections more severe.

E-cigarette use has also been tied to an increased risk of heart disease, and in animal experiments, to cancer and DNA damage, he added.

The bottom line for Glantz is that e-cigarettes aren’t safe alternatives to regular cigarettes and often lead to dual use.

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has the power to regulate e-cigarettes, and they could actually ban them, Glantz said.

“The FDA can simply say, we’re not going to allow these products to be sold,” he said. “In order to sell e-cigarettes in the United States, you need to have what’s called a marketing order. If the FDA doesn’t grant a marketing order, then the product can’t be sold. If the product can’t be legally sold, that will solve the problem.”

More information

For more on e-cigarettes, head to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Copyright 2020 HealthDay. All rights reserved.



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Study: NSAID pain relievers don’t increase risk for severe COVID-19

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Sept. 8 (UPI) — People who use non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, or NSAIDs, to treat pain are not at risk for more severe illness from COVID-19, according to a study published Tuesday by the journal PLOS Medicine.

Among users of NSAID pain relievers like ibuprofen and diclofenac infected with the new coronavirus, nearly 25% needed to be hospitalized, 5% required admission to the intensive care unit and 6.3% died, the data showed.

To compare, for those who did not use these drugs but tested positive for COVID-19, 21% were hospitalized, 5% needed ICU care and 6.1% died.

In the early phases of the pandemic, there were concerns that the use of the painkiller ibuprofen may lead to a more severe course of coronavirus disease, the researchers, from the University of Southern Denmark and Aarhus University Hospital in Denmark, said.

“Considering the available evidence, there is no reason to withdraw well-indicated use of NSAIDs during the pandemic,” they wrote.

“However, the well-established adverse effects of NSAIDs, particularly their renal, gastrointestinal and cardiovascular effects, should always be considered, and NSAIDs should be used in the lowest possible dose for the shortest possible duration for all patients,” they said.

Ibuprofen and other NSAIDs are some of the most commonly used medications in the United States, with an estimated 30 million doses consumed and 70 million prescriptions administered annually, according to the American College of Rheumatology.

For this study, the researchers obtained data on all 9,326 Danish residents who tested positive for COVID-19 between Feb. 27 and April 29, including NSAID use, hospitalization, ICU admission and need for mechanical ventilation and acute renal replacement therapy.

Overall, 248 people — or just under 3% — of the patients included in the analysis had filled a prescription for NSAIDs within 30 days of their positive virus test, according to the researchers.

There was no association between disease severity and NSAID use, the researchers said.

Another study published Aug. 12 had similar findings.



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Low-dose electrical stimulation helps adults with dyslexia read, study finds

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Sept. 8 (UPI) — Electrical stimulation of the brain improves reading accuracy in adults with dyslexia, according to a study published Tuesday by PLOS Biology.

Transcranial alternating current stimulation, a non-invasive procedure that delivers low-dose electricity to the brain over a period of 20 minutes, was found to improve phonological processing — or ability to discern how words sound or are pronounced — and reading accuracy in 15 adults with dyslexia, the researchers said.

The beneficial effect on phonological processing was most pronounced in those individuals who had poor reading skills, while a slightly disruptive effect was observed in very good readers, they said.

Dyslexia, known commonly as a reading disorder, affects up to 10% of the population, and is characterized by lifelong difficulties with written material,” according to the researchers, who are from the University of Geneva in Switzerland.

Although several possible causes have been proposed for dyslexia, the predominant one is a phonological deficit, or a difficulty in processing word sounds, the researchers said.

The phonological deficit in dyslexia is associated with changes in rhythmic or repetitive patterns of electrical activity in the brain, specifically “low-gamma” oscillations, measuring at 30 hertz or volts, in the left auditory cortex, they said.

However, studies have yet to prove that these these oscillations affect a person’s ability to process word sounds and cause dyslexia, the researchers said.

For this study, the researchers applied transcranial alternating current stimulation over the left auditory cortex in 15 adults with dyslexia and 15 fluent readers for 20 minutes.

At a dose of 30 hertz or volts, the approach resulted in significant improvement in reading accuracy in those with dyslexia, the researchers said.

However, the same improvements were not seen following application of a higher, 60-hertz dose, they said.

The results demonstrate for the first time that low-gamma oscillatory activity causes deficits in phonemic processing and may pave the way to non-invasive treatments aimed at normalizing oscillatory function in auditory cortex in people with dyslexia, the researchers said.

They plan “to investigate whether normalizing oscillatory function in very young children could have a long-lasting effect on the organization of the reading system [and] explore even less invasive means of correcting oscillatory activity,” study co-author Silvia Marchesotti, a post-doctural researcher at the University of Geneva, said in a press release.



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