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Teens who use joints, bongs, concentrates more likely to keep using pot

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Jan. 24 (UPI) — Teens who smoke cannabis with joints or bongs, or who use some pot concentrates, are six times more likely to continue using the drug than those who consume it via other methods, a new analysis suggests.

In results published Friday by JAMA Network Open, researchers found in a survey of nearly 3,000 teens, the highest percentage — approximately 6 percent — reported prior use of “combustible cannabis,” while less than 1 percent said they had “vaped” the substance.

Teens who said they smoked marijuana in a joint or bong were found to be at higher risk for still smoking six and 12-months later, the authors found.

Researchers write in the study that, for cannabis control and efforts to keep it out of the hands of teens, officials should consider targeting pot products that teens are more likely to use — and that are more likely to attract them to keep doing so.

“We report that the type of cannabis product matters,” study co-author Jessica Barrington-Trimis, director of the USC Epidemiology of Substance Use, told UPI. “These findings extend beyond an investigation simply of experimentation to an investigation of continued use.”

In recent years, the legalization and commercialization of cannabis has increased the variety of products available that contain THC, the psychoactive chemical in pot that gets people high. While smoking joints or bongs remains popular, there are also “edible” products — or food items containing cannabis — as well as “cannabis concentrates,” highly concentrated products that include “wax,” “shatter,” “budder” and butane hash oil.

Although less than 1 percent of the teens surveyed in Barrington-Trimis’ study reported use of cannabis concentrates, those users were also nearly six times more likely to have continued and increased their consumption of the drug over a 12-month period.

Barrington-Trimis noted that research from the University of Michigan’s Monitoring the Future project has found that in 2018 more than 40 percent of high school seniors reported using cannabis, with more than 20 percent indicating at least semi-regular use.

To learn what specific cannabis products are particularly appealing to teens, Barrington-Trimis and her colleagues — who have focused earlier work on teen vaping — surveyed 3,065 students at 10 high schools in southern California in the spring of 2016. In all, 2,685 were included in the final analysis, and they were interviewed three times — at the beginning, and then six and 12 months later.

Among those surveyed, 158, or 5.9 percent, reported using combustible cannabis on one to two of the previous 30 days, while 90, or 3.4 percent, indicated they had smoked blunts. In addition, 78, or 2.9 percent, reported edible cannabis use, while 17 and 15, or 0.6 percent each, indicated that they vaped cannabis or used a concentrate.

Although all of these percentages are relatively low, the authors noted that many respondents reported using multiple cannabis-based products.

Additionally, teens who said they used a cannabis concentrate on one to two of the prior 30 days during the initial interview said they consumed the products a mean of 9.42 more days in a month during the six- and 12-month follow-up interviews.

“In other words, the risk of persistent cannabis use and progression to more frequent cannabis use was greatest for those experimenting with concentrate cannabis use,” Barrington-Trimis said. “There are a number of mechanisms that we propose in the discussion section of the paper, which outline some reasons which may explain these findings.”



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Study: Common cold may help prevent flu, perhaps COVID-19

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Sept. 4 (UPI) — The virus most often behind the common cold is capable of preventing the flu virus from infecting airways by jump-starting the body’s immune defenses, a study published Friday by The Lancet Microbe found.

Now, the researchers from Yale University, want to determine if rhinovirus, the most common cold-causing virus, offers similar protective effects against COVID-19.

In an analysis of more than 13,000 patients with symptoms of a respiratory infection, those who had rhinovirus were not simultaneously infected with the flu virus — even during months when both viruses were active.

The finding may help explain why an expected surge in cases of H1N1 swine flu, predicted for Europe in fall 2009, never occurred, the researchers said.

It’s possible that the H1N1 virus was unable to infect those who already had the common cold, which was widespread at the time, they said.

“Infection with the common cold virus protected cells from infection with a more dangerous virus, the influenza virus, and [this] occurred because the common cold activated the body’s general antiviral defenses,” study co-author Dr. Ellen F. Foxman told UPI.

“This may explain why the flu season, in winter, generally occurs after the common cold season, in autumn, and why very few people have both viruses at the same time,” said Foxman, an assistant professor of laboratory medicine at Yale School of Medicine.

Concern has risen over the potential overlap of the COVID-19 pandemic with the annual flu season in the United States.

Dr. Anthony Fauci, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, recently said that the level of new cases of the coronavirus across the country is “too high.”

If cases continue to rise as flu season approaches, Fauci said, people infected with either of the two viruses, or both, could overwhelm the U.S. healthcare system.

“There [have been] a few reports of influenza-COVID-19 co-infections earlier in the year, and many of us are quite concerned what an influenza epidemic added to the COVID-19 pandemic could do,” Dr. Tony Moody, an associate professor of pediatric infectious diseases and immunology at Duke University Medical Center, told UPI

“At this point, we don’t really know what the two diseases will look like, or if other respiratory viruses will help or hurt during the current pandemic,” said Moody, who was not part of the Yale research.

For this study, Foxman and her colleagues analyzed nasal and throat specimens collected from 13,707 people with evidence of a respiratory infection. Just over 7% of the specimens tested positive for the rhinovirus, while just under 7% had confirmed influenza A infection.

Only 12 people in the study population had evidence of both viruses simultaneously, the researchers found.

To test how the rhinovirus and the influenza virus interact, Foxman and her colleagues created human airway tissue with epithelial cells, which line the airways of the lung and are a chief target of respiratory viruses, grown from stem cells.

After the tissue had been exposed to rhinovirus, the influenza virus was unable to infect the tissue because the cells’ antiviral defenses were already turned on before the flu virus arrived, Foxman said.

The rhinovirus triggered production of the natural antiviral interferon in the cells. Interferon is part of the early immune system response to the invasion of pathogens, Foxman said.

The protective effect offered by this new interferon lasts for at least five days, she said.

The findings may allow researchers to better predict how respiratory viruses spread and find new ways to combat them in the absence of vaccines, the researchers said.

They emphasized, however, that whether the annual seasonal spread of the common cold virus will have a similar impact on COVID-19 remains unknown.

“Our results show that interactions between viruses can be an important driving force dictating how and when viruses spread through a population,” Foxman said.

“Since every virus is different, we still do not know how the common cold season will impact the spread of COVID-19, but we now know we should be looking out for these interactions.”



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People who don’t believe in God may get better sleep, study says

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Atheists and agnostics are much more likely to sleep like an angel than Catholics and Baptists, a new study finds.

It included more than 1,500 participants in the Baylor University Religion Survey who were asked about their religious affiliation, behaviors and beliefs, as well as their average nightly sleep time and difficulty getting to sleep.

While 73% of atheists and agnostics said they got seven or more hours of nightly sleep, only 63% of Catholics and only 55% of Baptists said they got at least seven hours of sleep a night, preliminary data show.

Seven or more hours of sleep a night is recommended by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine, or AASM, for good health.

Catholics and Baptists were also more likely to report having difficulty falling asleep than atheists and agnostics.

Study participants who said they slept seven or more hours per night were much more likely to believe that they would get into heaven, compared to those who got less sleep.

However, beliefs about getting into heaven weren’t linked with difficulty falling asleep at night.

The researchers said that better sleep results in a more optimistic outlook and that in this study, that manifested as people believing they’d get into heaven.

“Mental health is increasingly discussed in church settings — as it should be — but sleep health is not discussed,” said study author Kyla Fergason, a student at Baylor University in Waco, Texas.

“Yet we know that sleep loss undercuts many human abilities that are considered to be core values of the church: being a positive member of a social community, expressing love and compassion rather than anger or judgment, and displaying integrity in moral reasoning and behavior,” Fergason said in AASM news release.

“Could getting better sleep help some people grow in their faith or become better Christians? We don’t know the answer to that question yet, but we do know that mental, physical and cognitive health are intertwined with sleep health in the general population,” she noted.

The findings were recently published in an online supplement of the journal Sleep, and were presented last week at the virtual annual meeting of the Associated Professional Sleep Societies.

More information

The National Sleep Foundation has more on sleep.

Copyright 2020 HealthDay. All rights reserved.



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Some COVID-19 survivors may have permanent nerve damage

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Placing a hospitalized COVID-19 patient in a face down position to ease breathing — or “proning” — has steadily gained traction as a pandemic lifesaver. But a small new study warns that it may lead to permanent nerve damage.

The concern is based on the experience of 83 COVID-19 patients who were placed face down while attached to a ventilator. Once they improved, all began post-COVID-19 rehabilitation at a single health care facility.

By that point, roughly 14% had developed a “peripheral nerve injury” (PNI) involving one or more major joints, such as the wrist, hand, foot or shoulder.

Despite that damage, study author Dr. Colin Franz said proning “is a lifesaving intervention, and we think it is saving lives during the COVID pandemic.”

And although placing patients face down has been known to cause skin pressure injuries in non-COVID-19 patients, he said nerve compression injuries are typically uncommon with regular repositioning and careful padding.

“So we were very surprised to find 12 out of 83 patients with nerve injuries,” said Franz, neurology director of the Regenerative Neurorehabilitation Laboratory at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, in Chicago.

He characterized the nature of the nerve damage as so severe that affected patients were “unlikely to fully recover.”

The damage included loss of hand function, frozen shoulder and foot dragging that may lead to a need for a brace, cane or wheelchair.
“Full recovery for nerve damage is estimated to occur in only about 10% of patients under the best of circumstances,” Franz explained. “And the recovery that does take place will happen over 12 to 24 months.”

In other words, the nerve damage might be the longest-lasting effect of COVID-19 for most of these patients, he suggested. And if the risk seen among the study group is any indication, thousands of patients worldwide could have the same damage, Franz said.

Franz noted that some, but not all, of the patients had pre-existing conditions such as diabetes that made them more likely to have nerve injuries from compression. Many of the patients were also old or obese.

But he and his colleagues suspect something about COVID-19 infection itself makes nerves more vulnerable to damage. Among the possible triggers: the increased inflammatory state brought on by SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, as well as poor blood circulation and blood clotting.

Prone-triggered PNI may also result from “the way patients are positioned and the weight it may put on certain nerves for prolonged periods of time,” said Dr. Armeen Poor, an attending physician of pulmonary critical care medicine at Metropolitan Hospital Center in New York City, who reviewed the findings.

Another possible contributor: overworked hospital staff.

During the height of the pandemic, said Poor, “many hospitals were proning more patients at a time than usual. This excess strain on staff could have compromised the frequency of careful patient repositioning while prone, and potentially increased the risk of nerve injury.”

Dr. Nicholas Caputo, an associate chief and attending emergency physician at Lincoln Medical and Mental Health Center, Bronx, N.Y., also reviewed the findings. He said it’s important to recognize that this study focused only on patients proned while on a ventilator.

But, he noted, proning has been successfully deployed among non-ventilated patients, often in hopes of staving off ventilation. Such “self-proning” patients are awake and “instructed to change positions if they become uncomfortable.”

In the intensive care unit, however, ventilated patients are generally proned for eight to 12 hours before being turned, Caputo said. “This puts much more pressure on certain areas of the body, and places the patients at risk for complications such as peripheral neuropathies,” he added.

Hoping to reduce prone-linked PNI risk among intubated patients, Franz’s team has been “mapping” regions most vulnerable to nerve damage. That information could help doctors, nurses and physical therapists deploy modified positioning, extra padding and protection of vulnerable areas. Wearable sensors could be used to “measure and monitor [the] loading of nerves,” he said.

“In medicine we focus on ‘ABCs’ — airway, breathing and circulation — when there is an emergency,” Franz said. “Intubation and proning positioning fall within these categories and save lives. This is always the first priority. We do think these added measures will help prevent these nerve injuries, however.”

The findings have not yet been peer-reviewed but were reported online recently in medRxiv in advance of publication in The British Journal of Anaesthesia.

More information

Learn more about COVID-19 and proning at the University of Pennsylvania.

Copyright 2020 HealthDay. All rights reserved.



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