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Some infants can identify major and minor musical tones at 6 months

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June 4 (UPI) — Some people may simply be born with an ear for music, according to a new study.

Researchers developed a new technique to determine whether infants have the capacity to hear the highs and lows, or major and minor notes in music. Their experiments suggest some 6-month-olds can identify differences in musical tones.

Previous studies have shown that roughly 30 percent of adults, with or without musical training, are capable of differentiating between major and minor tones. When scientists tested 6-month-old infants, using a combination of eye-movement tracking and verbal cues, they found the same percentage were able to identify differences in musical tones.

The latest findings, published Thursday in the Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, suggest the ability is innate, or genetic, in origin.

“At 6 months, it’s highly unlikely that any of these infants have had any formal training in music,” lead author Scott Adler, associate professor of psychology at the York University’s Center for Vision Research in Britain, said in a news release. “Yes, parents play music for children. All children in western civilization hear music, but they don’t get that specific training in music. This breakdown, therefore, is due to some inborn mechanism.”

The new research also confirms what previous studies showed, which is that there is no correlation between musical training and an ability to discern between major and minor tones.

To test the ability of infants to identify between highs and lows, researchers played a series of notes in either major or minor tones. After the notes, a picture would appear either to the right or left, depending on whether the sequence featured minor or major notes. In a followup experiment, scientists played sequences that failed to predict the location of the subsequent image.

“What we measured over time was how the infants learned the association between which tone they heard and where the picture is going to show up,” said Adler. “If they can tell the difference in the tone, over time, when they hear the major notes for example, they’ll make an eye movement to the location for the picture even before the picture appears because they can predict this. This is what we are measuring.”

Once the infants had a chance to learn the association between the tones and image direction, roughly one-third of the 6-month-olds were able to predict with their eye movements — with almost perfect accuracy — where the image would appear following the tone sequences.

Authors of the new study suggest the findings could have implications for language development.

“There is a connection between music, music processing and mathematical abilities, as well as language, so whether these things connect up to those abilities is an unknown,” Adler said. “However, when people talk to babies they change the intonation of their voice and the pitch of their voice so they’re changing from major to minor. That is actually an important component for babies to learn language. If you don’t have the capacity it might affect that ability in learning language.”



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Sounds made by fluttering feathers help fork-tailed flycatchers communicate

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Sept. 22 (UPI) — Scientists have added another species to the list of birds that use sounds made with their feathers to communicate.

The male fork-tailed flycatcher, a passerine bird species native to the American tropics, creates unique sounds by fluttering its feathers at high frequencies, according to research published Wednesday in the journal Integrative and Comparative Biology.

“Back in the 1960’s, scientists noticed that they produce a distinctive sound only during a particular flight display,” researcher Christopher Clark, told UPI in an email.

“And those species of flycatcher in the genus Tyrannus, those that make the most distinctive sounds have the most distinctly shaped outer primary feathers,” said Clark, an associate professor of evolutionary biology at the University of California Riverside.

For the latest research, scientists conducted field studies to better understand both the mechanics of the feather fluttering and its communicative utility.

“We found that the birds don’t produce sounds every time they fly, but only under specific behavioral contexts,” lead study author Valentina Gomez told UPI in an email.

“One is during the pre-dawn display, after waking up. They begin displaying by singing and then they include feather songs. They also produce these sounds during territorial displays,” said Gomez, a doctoral student at the University of Illinois at Chicago.

To study the fluttering’s acoustic qualities, scientists captured males with mist netting, and used cameras and microphones to record the sounds the birds made as they escaped and retreated.

Fork-tailed flycatchers are quite territorial and aggressively defend their nests. Males are especially aggressive, regularly engaging in aerial battles with other males over mating opportunities and territory. They’re also more than willing to attack larger birds that stray too close to their nests.

Researchers used a taxidermy hawk outfitted with microphones and a camera to measure the movement of the fork-tailed flycatcher’s feathers during displays of aggression. The recordings revealed a difference in the sounds made by two subspecies, one that migrates long distances and another that is more stationary.

“Differences in migration likely influenced the shape of feathers and this affects the frequency at which they flutter,” Gomez said.

In effect, the two subspecies have developed dialects. Researchers suspect this phenomenon might help drive speciation, or species divergence.

“The evolution of different movement behaviors promotes the initial trigger of the speciation process,” Gomez said. “Through time, correlated evolution of morphological traits affects how they communicate.”

In other words, the difference in sound-making didn’t jumpstart the speciation process, but Gomez and her research partners hypothesize that the development of feather-flapping dialects works to reinforce the divergence.

Similarly, while the sound-making feathers of fork-tailed flycatchers may have initially evolved in response to pressures unrelated to communication, researchers claim the birds now utilize their sound-making abilities with intentionality. They’ve harnessed the power of their fluttering features for the purposes of communication.

“The birds alter how they are flapping their wings when they produce sound; their wingbeat frequency goes up by quite a bit,” Clark said. “The altered kinematics is another clue that this is ‘intentional.'”

While non-vocal communication has been observed in a variety of bird genus and species, scientists suspect the prevalence of the practice is underestimated.

Researchers hope that future investigations of feather-based communication among flycatchers will offer new insights into why so many birds have evolved non-vocal communication over and over again.

While the latest findings suggest the fork-tailed flycatcher relies on feather-based communication for pair bonding and displays of aggression, many questions about the fluttering’s utility remain.

“We still need to learn a lot about bird acoustic perception,” Gomez said.



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Once exposed to humans, animals start to lose their fear of predators

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Sept. 22 (UPI) — New research suggests animals begin to lose their fear of predators once they start encountering humans on a regular basis.

For the study, scientists surveyed the findings of 173 peer-reviewed papers on predator avoidance behaviors and traits deployed by 102 species of domesticated, captive and urbanized mammals, birds, reptiles, fish and mollusks.

The analysis, published Tuesday in the journal PLOS Biology, showed predator avoidance traits and behaviors, including vigilance, freezing and fleeing, decreased as a result of exposure to humans.

Researchers found individual variation in anti-predator characteristics increased upon a species’ initial exposure to humans, but then gradually decreased after generations of human exposure.

“While it is well known that the fact of being protected by humans decreases anti-predator capacities in animals, we did not know how fast this occurs and to what extent this is comparable between contexts,” lead researcher Benjamin Geffroy, biologist at the University of Montpellier in France, said in a news release.

The findings suggest behavioral flexibility allows for the initial increase in the variability of anti-predator traits, but researchers suspect genetic changes solidify declines in predator avoidance as subsequent generations adjust to the presence of humans.

In the studies analyzed by Geffroy and his colleagues, domesticated animals lose their anti-predator traits much more quickly than urbanized animals, which can cause problems when domesticated or urbanized species are released back into the wild.

“We also integrated physiological traits in the study but they were much less numerous that behavioral traits,” Geffroy said. “We believe they should be systematically investigated to draw a global pattern of what is happening at the individual level.

“We need more data to understand whether this occurs also with the mere presence of tourists,” Geffroy said.



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Search and rescue dogs fared well after work at 9/11 sites, study says

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Search and rescue dogs used during the 9/11 attacks lived as long as dogs not at the World Trade Center in New York City and the Pentagon, a new study finds.

“I was at Ground Zero and I would hear people make comments like, ‘Did you hear that half of the dogs that responded to the bombing in Oklahoma City died of X, Y, or Z?’ Or they’d say dogs responding to 9/11 had died,” said Dr. Cynthia Otto, director of the University of Pennsylvania’s Working Dog Center, in Philadelphia. “It was really disconcerting.”

Otto and her School of Veterinary Medicine colleagues’ findings are reassuring.

Dogs that participated in search-and-rescue efforts after 9/11 lived as long as search-and-rescue dogs not at the scene — a median of about 12.8 years, meaning half died sooner, half did not. They also outlived the life spans of their breed. There was no difference in the dogs’ cause of death.

“Honestly, this was not what we expected it’s surprising and wonderful,” said Otto, a veterinarian.

The researchers expected to see respiratory problems in the exposed dogs, but they did not. The most common cause of death was age-related conditions, such as arthritis and cancer.

For the study, Otto collected data on 95 dogs that had worked at the World Trade Center, the nearby Fresh Kills Landfill in Staten Island, N.Y., or Pentagon disaster sites in Washington, D.C. They compared these dogs with 55 search-and-rescue dogs that were not deployed on 9/11.

“We anticipated that the dogs would be the ‘canary in the coal mine’ for the human first responders since dogs age faster than humans and didn’t have any of the protective equipment during the response,” Otto said in a university news release. “But we didn’t see a lot that was concerning.”

Generally, these dogs are stronger and healthier than pets, which might partly explain why the dogs fared well, she said.

The findings were published Sept. 21 in the Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association.

More information

For more on responder health after 9/11, visit the New York State Department of Health.

Copyright 2020 HealthDay. All rights reserved.



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