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Second U.S. case of Wuhan coronavirus confirmed in Chicago

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Jan. 24 (UPI) — The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention confirmed Friday the second American case of Wuhan coronavirus as a woman in Chicago who recently traveled to the Chinese city where the outbreak started.

The agency said it was evaluating 63 other samples for potential infection, but risk of spread remains low.

Allison Arwady, commissioner of the Chicago Department of Public Health, said the patient is a woman in her 60s who had traveled to Wuhan, China — ground zero for the outbreak — in late December and returned Jan. 13.

The woman is “clinically doing well and is currently in stable condition,” Arwady said.

The patient remains hospitalized, but officials wouldn’t say where or give other information.

She is the second case the CDC has confirmed in the United States. A man in his 30s is being treated for coronavirus in Seattle. He had also traveled to Wuhan.

Illinois health officials said the Chicago case was confirmed earlier this week after samples were sent to the CDC lab in Atlanta for testing. The agency plans to make testing procedures available to local public health agencies across the country as soon as possible.

“The risk for transmission before symptoms develop appears to be low, which is reassuring,” Arwady said. The woman “had limited social contacts” prior to developing symptoms, and none of her contacts are ill.

The woman has been cooperative with public health officials, who have been tracking her movements since her return from China to gauge the extent to which others may have been exposed.

She was not symptomatic while traveling and has had “limited contact” with the people outside her home. She has not taken public transit or attended large gatherings, Arwady said.

The patient started experiencing symptoms several days after returning from China. She contacted her physician, who immediately instructed her to put on a mask and referred her to a local hospital with infection control facilities.

“The risk [to the public] remains low nationally and in Chicago,” Arwady said.

The woman returned to the United States before the CDC started screening travelers last week at five international airports with regular flights to and from China, including Chicago’s O’Hare.

About 2,000 travelers on 200 flights have been screened.

Although testing of samples collected from these travelers is ongoing, only one has been referred to a healthcare facility for further evaluation.

Nancy Messonnier, director of the CDC’s National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, said the agency has been testing “respiratory samples” — mucous or phlegm — from suspected cases since early January.

Sixty-three samples from travelers to China living in 22 states are being evaluated. The results are in for 11 of them, and all have been negative.

The CDC plans to begin regular reporting of coronavirus case information on its website next week. The agency has deployed a team to Chicago to support that investigation and recommends that Americans avoid travel to Wuhan.

Those traveling to other areas of China should take precautions, including avoiding those who are sick and practicing good hand hygiene, Messonier said.

“This is a rapidly changing situation both abroad and nationally,” she said. “We are expecting more cases in the U.S., and we are likely to see more cases among travelers and human-to-human transmission. However, CDC believes that the immediate the risk to the American public remains low at this time.”



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New veterans have 93% higher risk for suicide than general public, study finds

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Sept. 11 (UPI) — New military veterans are 93% more likely to die by suicide than the general public, an analysis published Friday by JAMA Network Open found.

The assessment, which focused on nearly 1.9 million service members that left the military between 2010 and 2017, found that more than 3,000 service of them died by suicide, with the vast majority of them — just over 94% — men.

The study found men were more than three times as likely to die by suicide after transitioning to civilian life than women, the researchers said.

Younger members, 17 to 19 years old, were 4.5 times as likely to die by suicide after leaving the service than older veterans — those 40 years old and older — according to the researchers.

“National leaders at the highest levels of the U.S. government have been concerned about suicide rates among service members transitioning to civilian life,” wrote the researchers, who are from the Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System in Washington.

“We believe this cohort study provides much-needed data to help inform prevention efforts among this veteran cohort,” they wrote.

More than 78,000 veterans died by suicide between 2005 and 2017, when a high 6,139 suicide deaths were reported, according to the Department of Veterans Affairs.

In addition, suicide rates across the United States have been increasing since at least 2000, and suicide has been the 10th leading cause of death in the country since 2008, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported last month.

To address the issue, several branches of the service, including the Army and the National Guard, have stepped up suicide prevention initiatives, particularly since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, when leaders became concerned that veterans isolating themselves to prevent infection would as a result stop accessing support services.

In the JAMA Network Open analysis, among those who left the military from the beginning of 2010 through the end of 2017, suicide rates were highest among American Indian and Alaska Native service members — 56 per 100,000 veterans — and White American service members — 46 per 100,000 veterans.

Marine Corps veterans were more than twice as likely to die by suicide than those of other branches of the military.

Veterans without a high school degree were 71% more likely to commit suicide, the data showed.

Those who were single or never married had a 21% higher risk for suicide, while those who were divorced, separated or widowed had a 43% higher risk, according to the researchers.

Suicide rates among service members peaked six to 12 months after separation from the military, the data showed.

“This pattern was true for service members who left the Army, Marine Corps or Air Force, [while] the rates for those who last served in the Navy peaked three to six months after their transition,” the researchers wrote.

“After transition, veterans can face challenges in a variety of areas, including employment, finances, mental health, access to health care and social support.”



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Common meds linked to faster mental decline in seniors

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A group of widely used medications might speed up older adults’ mental decline — especially if they are at increased risk of dementia, a new study hints.

The medications in question are called anticholinergics, and they are used to treat a diverse range of conditions — from allergies, motion sickness and overactive bladder to high blood pressure, depression and Parkinson’s disease.

The drugs are known to have short-term side effects such as confusion and fuzzy memory.

But studies in recent years have turned up a more troubling connection: a heightened risk of dementia among long-term users.

The new findings, published Sept. 2 in Neurology, add another layer: Healthy older adults on these medications had an increased risk of developing mild cognitive impairment. That refers to subtler problems with memory and thinking that may progress to dementia.

And the link, researchers found, was strongest among two groups of people already at heightened risk of Alzheimer’s disease: those who carry a gene variant that raises the odds of the disease, and people with certain biological “markers” of the disease in their spinal fluid.

The results do not prove anticholinergic drugs are to blame, cautioned Heather Snyder, vice president of medical and scientific relations at the Alzheimer’s Association.

“This study shows an association in a very specific population, but it does not prove causation,” said Snyder, who was not involved in the research.

However, it is biologically plausible that the drugs could increase dementia risk, said Dr. Allison Reiss, an associate professor at NYU Long Island School of Medicine.

The medications, she said, block a chemical called acetylcholine, which transmits messages among nerve cells. Acetylcholine is involved in memory and learning, and is typically low in people with Alzheimer’s.

“The preponderance of evidence suggests it’s better to avoid these medications in older adults,” said Reiss, who is also an advisory board member at the Alzheimer’s Foundation of America.

That’s especially true, she added, when alternatives exist.

Many medications sold for allergies, colds and coughs have anticholinergic properties — and are available over-the-counter. So it’s important, Reiss said, that older adults be aware that non-prescription drugs are not automatically “safe.”

“You don’t want to add any medications that aren’t necessary,” said Reiss, who had no role in the study.

Meanwhile, certain prescription drugs for depression, high blood pressure, Parkinson’s disease and schizophrenia have anticholinergic properties, as do medications for overactive bladder and urinary incontinence.

Reiss said that people with questions about their prescriptions should talk to their doctor.

For the new study, researchers led by Lisa Delano-Wood, from the University of California, San Diego, followed 688 older adults who initially had no problems with memory or thinking skills. One-third said they’d been regularly taking anticholinergic drugs for more than six months — usually far more than one.

In fact, they were taking an average of almost five medications per person.

Over the next 10 years, people on anticholinergics were more likely to develop mild cognitive impairment, which was gauged through yearly tests. Over half — 51% — developed the condition, versus 42% of older adults not taking anticholinergics.

The researchers did consider other factors that affect dementia risk — such as people’s education levels and history of heart disease or stroke. And after adjusting for those factors, older adults on anticholinergics were still 47% more likely to develop mild impairment.

The link was even stronger among people who carried a gene variant that raises Alzheimer’s risk: Anticholinergic use more than doubled their risk of impairment. A similar pattern was seen among study participants with Alzheimer’s-linked proteins in their spinal fluid.

That, Reiss said, suggests the medications might have “accelerated a process that was already in place.”

Snyder said the results “illustrate that we need better treatments — not only for Alzheimer’s and other dementias, but for other common conditions associated with aging.”

More information

The University of British Columbia has more on anticholinergic drugs.

Copyright 2020 HealthDay. All rights reserved.



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Even ‘social smokers’ up their odds of death from lung disease

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Even light smokers are much more likely to die of lung disease or lung cancer than nonsmokers, a new study warns.

“Everyone knows that smoking is bad for you, but it’s easy to assume that if you only smoke a little, the risks won’t be too high,” said study co-leader Pallavi Balte, of Columbia University Irving Medical Center, in New York City.

The new study shows how wrong that thinking can be. It included nearly 19,000 people in the United States, average age 61, who were followed for an average of 17 years. During that time, nearly 650 died of lung disease (such as emphysema) and 560 died of lung cancer.

Among nonsmokers, less than 2% died from lung disease and less than 1% died from lung cancer. But among social smokers (fewer than 10 cigarettes a day), those numbers were over 3% and close to 5%, respectively.

Not surprisingly, heavy smokers (more than 20 cigarettes a day) fared worst, with more than 10% dying from lung disease and about 13% from lung cancer, the study found.

After accounting for other potential factors — such as age, sex, race, level of education and body weight — the researchers concluded that social smokers were 2.5 times more likely to die of lung disease and 8.6 times more likely to die of lung cancer than nonsmokers.

Social smokers had around half the rate of death from lung disease as heavy smokers, but their rate of lung cancer death was two-thirds that of heavy smokers, according to the study.

The results were scheduled for presentation at a virtual meeting of the European Respiratory Society. Data and conclusions presented at meetings should be considered preliminary until peer-reviewed.

The findings show that cutting down on smoking is no substitute for quitting, the researchers concluded.

“Previous research suggests that people are cutting down on smoking. For example, in the U.S.A., the proportion of smokers smoking less than 10 cigarettes per day has increased from 16% to 27%,” Balte said in a society news release.

“You might think that if you only smoke a few cigarettes a day you are avoiding most of the risk. But our findings suggest that social smoking is disproportionately harmful,” Balte said.

If you don’t want to die of lung cancer or respiratory disease, the best action is to quit completely, she added.

More information

The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention offers a guide for quitting smoking.

Copyright 2020 HealthDay. All rights reserved.



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