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Research is mixed on using medical marijuana in Parkinson’s disease care

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At a conference hosted two years ago by the Parkinson‘s Foundation, many neurologists had a pressing issue on their minds: pot.

“Doctors were saying that the number one question from their patients was, ‘Can I use medical cannabis for my Parkinson’s disease?'” recalled James Beck, the foundation’s senior vice president and chief scientific officer.

The answer isn’t a simple one, according to a summary of pot use recommendations that was prompted by that question and published recently by the Parkinson’s Foundation.

Researchers have studied the use of cannabis in patients with Parkinson’s disease for more than 20 years, but there are precious few randomized, controlled clinical trials, partly because the drug is still illegal under federal law, explained Susan Fox, director of neurology at Mount Sinai Health System in New York City.

But the growing legalization of marijuana has spurred interest. “When people hear that something is legalized, they think it’s safe to use,” Fox said. She added that her patients ask her if they should try using marijuana “a lot.”

That high level of interest prompted Parkinson’s Foundation experts to analyze all of the existing research related to marijuana and Parkinson’s disease.

The end result was a mixed bag.

The foundation’s experts found that many of the typical side effects of marijuana can exacerbate symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. Marijuana can cause diminished balance and sudden drops in blood pressure, which can be especially dangerous for people with Parkinson’s disease, who are already prone to low blood pressure and impaired movement.

“The combination of cannabis and Parkinson’s disease can lead to falls, which is a big concern and one of the leading causes of mortality for people with Parkinson’s disease,” said Beck. Since the disease affects people in their 60s or older, a fall can be devastating, especially for people with a chronic condition like Parkinson’s.

Marijuana may also amplify muddy thinking and hallucinations, two other common Parkinson’s symptoms. “If people are already having trouble with hallucinations or paranoia, it’s probably best not to consider taking a drug like cannabis that could make those symptoms worse,” Beck noted.

Despite the risks and limited research, experts believe that marijuana might ease symptoms like muscle and joint pain, anxiety and insomnia.

“If someone is looking to experiment, [pain, anxiety and insomnia] are reasonable things to think cannabis might be helpful for,” Beck said. “But it’s not going to help them with their tremors or the progression of their Parkinson’s disease.”

Beck did note that marijuana use could also help some patients who have a hard time maintaining their weight, as it is known to generate an appetite.

The foundation’s statement covers not only the side effects, but also the lack of effects.

“This is an issue where there may be some symptomatic benefits, but it’s not likely to help with the motor symptoms, the symptoms like tremors or slowness of movements,” Beck said.

Parkinson’s patients who choose to use marijuana are advised to start with small doses and work their way up, depending on how the drug affects them, the foundation advised.

While the statement does not recommend any particular method of consuming marijuana products, Beck said that patients should be especially careful with edible forms, which can take a while to reach peak dosage in the bloodstream, potentially causing people to overdose. People with Parkinson’s disease also tend to have a slowed digestive system, which can further delay the drug from reaching peak dosage.

“The key is really to go low, in terms of dosage, and go slow as you increase,” said Beck. “That way, the side effects can be understood and mitigated.”

The foundation’s guidance for doctors is to be both accepting and honest with their patients.

“Doctors need to be open to this so that their patients will tell them what’s going on, and they can use that information to ensure that their patients are as safe as possible,” said Beck. “It’s best to be supportive of what they’re doing, but also to be frank about the lack of strong evidence to demonstrate that cannabis is effective for anything with Parkinson’s disease.”

More information

Visit the Parkinson’s Foundation for more on pot and Parkinson’s.

Copyright 2020 HealthDay. All rights reserved.



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Kids’ ‘green’ time reduces adverse effects of ‘screen’ time on behavior, learning

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Sept. 4 (UPI) — More time spent outdoors — and less in front of a screen — leads to improved mental health in children and adolescents, according to an analysis of existing research published Friday by the journal PLOS ONE.

Based on data from 186 previously published studies, researchers determined that young people who spent more time on handheld games and devices, television and computers were more likely to have behavior and emotional problems and display symptoms of aggression and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder.

The young people also were more likely to have learning or social difficulties.

Conversely, children who spent more time outdoors and who had increased access to “green” spaces for play and learning were less likely to have these undesirable traits.

“Overall, the studies showed that high levels of screen time were associated with poorer psychological well-being, while more green time was associated with better psychological well-being,” co-author Tassia Oswald told UPI.

“While a lot more work needs to be done in this field to help us understand why this is the case, it is important that [technology] doesn’t become the only thing young people do in their leisure time,” said Oswald, a doctoral student in public health at the University of Adelaide in Australia.

The prevalence of mental health illness among children and adolescents is increasing globally, according to Oswald and her colleagues.

In the United States, roughly 7%, or 4.5 million, of children ages 3 to 17 have been diagnosed with a behavioral problem, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates.

On average, American children and adolescents spent between four and six hours per day watching or uses devices with screens, and may be exposed to violence and misleading or inaccurate information, among other potentially problematic content, according to the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.

A separate study of 1,239 8- to 9-year-olds in Melbourne, Australia, published earlier this week by PLOS ONE, found that watching two or more hours of television per day at that age was associated with lower reading performance compared to peers two years later.

In addition, using a computer for more than one hour per day was linked to a similar reduction in their ability to understand and work with numbers.

However, no links were found between the use of video games and academic performance, the analysis showed.

Preliminary evidence suggests that green time potentially could limit the effects of high screen time, meaning nature may be an under-utilized public health resource to promote youth psychological well-being in a high-tech era, according to Oswald and her colleagues.

“Monitoring screen time can be difficult for parents — especially at the moment when many children have transitioned to online learning due to COVID-19 lockdowns,” Oswald said.

“Trying to encourage a balance of activities is good — so if a child spends an hour on a video game, encourage them to get outside for an hour.”



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Study: Common cold may help prevent flu, perhaps COVID-19

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Sept. 4 (UPI) — The virus most often behind the common cold is capable of preventing the flu virus from infecting airways by jump-starting the body’s immune defenses, a study published Friday by The Lancet Microbe found.

Now, the researchers from Yale University, want to determine if rhinovirus, the most common cold-causing virus, offers similar protective effects against COVID-19.

In an analysis of more than 13,000 patients with symptoms of a respiratory infection, those who had rhinovirus were not simultaneously infected with the flu virus — even during months when both viruses were active.

The finding may help explain why an expected surge in cases of H1N1 swine flu, predicted for Europe in fall 2009, never occurred, the researchers said.

It’s possible that the H1N1 virus was unable to infect those who already had the common cold, which was widespread at the time, they said.

“Infection with the common cold virus protected cells from infection with a more dangerous virus, the influenza virus, and [this] occurred because the common cold activated the body’s general antiviral defenses,” study co-author Dr. Ellen F. Foxman told UPI.

“This may explain why the flu season, in winter, generally occurs after the common cold season, in autumn, and why very few people have both viruses at the same time,” said Foxman, an assistant professor of laboratory medicine at Yale School of Medicine.

Concern has risen over the potential overlap of the COVID-19 pandemic with the annual flu season in the United States.

Dr. Anthony Fauci, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, recently said that the level of new cases of the coronavirus across the country is “too high.”

If cases continue to rise as flu season approaches, Fauci said, people infected with either of the two viruses, or both, could overwhelm the U.S. healthcare system.

“There [have been] a few reports of influenza-COVID-19 co-infections earlier in the year, and many of us are quite concerned what an influenza epidemic added to the COVID-19 pandemic could do,” Dr. Tony Moody, an associate professor of pediatric infectious diseases and immunology at Duke University Medical Center, told UPI

“At this point, we don’t really know what the two diseases will look like, or if other respiratory viruses will help or hurt during the current pandemic,” said Moody, who was not part of the Yale research.

For this study, Foxman and her colleagues analyzed nasal and throat specimens collected from 13,707 people with evidence of a respiratory infection. Just over 7% of the specimens tested positive for the rhinovirus, while just under 7% had confirmed influenza A infection.

Only 12 people in the study population had evidence of both viruses simultaneously, the researchers found.

To test how the rhinovirus and the influenza virus interact, Foxman and her colleagues created human airway tissue with epithelial cells, which line the airways of the lung and are a chief target of respiratory viruses, grown from stem cells.

After the tissue had been exposed to rhinovirus, the influenza virus was unable to infect the tissue because the cells’ antiviral defenses were already turned on before the flu virus arrived, Foxman said.

The rhinovirus triggered production of the natural antiviral interferon in the cells. Interferon is part of the early immune system response to the invasion of pathogens, Foxman said.

The protective effect offered by this new interferon lasts for at least five days, she said.

The findings may allow researchers to better predict how respiratory viruses spread and find new ways to combat them in the absence of vaccines, the researchers said.

They emphasized, however, that whether the annual seasonal spread of the common cold virus will have a similar impact on COVID-19 remains unknown.

“Our results show that interactions between viruses can be an important driving force dictating how and when viruses spread through a population,” Foxman said.

“Since every virus is different, we still do not know how the common cold season will impact the spread of COVID-19, but we now know we should be looking out for these interactions.”



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People who don’t believe in God may get better sleep, study says

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Atheists and agnostics are much more likely to sleep like an angel than Catholics and Baptists, a new study finds.

It included more than 1,500 participants in the Baylor University Religion Survey who were asked about their religious affiliation, behaviors and beliefs, as well as their average nightly sleep time and difficulty getting to sleep.

While 73% of atheists and agnostics said they got seven or more hours of nightly sleep, only 63% of Catholics and only 55% of Baptists said they got at least seven hours of sleep a night, preliminary data show.

Seven or more hours of sleep a night is recommended by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine, or AASM, for good health.

Catholics and Baptists were also more likely to report having difficulty falling asleep than atheists and agnostics.

Study participants who said they slept seven or more hours per night were much more likely to believe that they would get into heaven, compared to those who got less sleep.

However, beliefs about getting into heaven weren’t linked with difficulty falling asleep at night.

The researchers said that better sleep results in a more optimistic outlook and that in this study, that manifested as people believing they’d get into heaven.

“Mental health is increasingly discussed in church settings — as it should be — but sleep health is not discussed,” said study author Kyla Fergason, a student at Baylor University in Waco, Texas.

“Yet we know that sleep loss undercuts many human abilities that are considered to be core values of the church: being a positive member of a social community, expressing love and compassion rather than anger or judgment, and displaying integrity in moral reasoning and behavior,” Fergason said in AASM news release.

“Could getting better sleep help some people grow in their faith or become better Christians? We don’t know the answer to that question yet, but we do know that mental, physical and cognitive health are intertwined with sleep health in the general population,” she noted.

The findings were recently published in an online supplement of the journal Sleep, and were presented last week at the virtual annual meeting of the Associated Professional Sleep Societies.

More information

The National Sleep Foundation has more on sleep.

Copyright 2020 HealthDay. All rights reserved.



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