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E-cigs may help adults quit smoking, but boost teen risk for starting

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June 5 (UPI) — Flavored e-cigarettes may help adults quit smoking, but they may make teenagers more inclined to start, a study published Friday by JAMA Network Open found.

The analysis revealed that adults who moved to vaping with non-tobacco-flavored products after smoking traditional cigarettes were 34 percent more likely to quit than those who didn’t make the change, the authors said.

But teenagers who vaped non-tobacco-flavored products were nearly seven times more likely to start smoking regularly than those who didn’t vape, researchers found.

“Adult smokers who took up vaping non-tobacco-flavored e-cigarettes were more likely to quit smoking than those who took up tobacco-flavored e-cigarettes,” study co-author Abigail S. Friedman, assistant professor of health policy and management at the Yale School of Public Health, told UPI.

“The same was not true for youth smoking initiation,” Friedman said.

A second study published Friday in the same publication found that users of “electronic nicotine delivery systems” — including e-cigarettes and vape pens — are 63 percent more likely to restart smoking than those who choose other smoking cessation aids.

Some 34 million American adults use tobacco products, down from roughly 45 million in the early 2000s, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

About 2 percent of all adult smokers use e-cigarettes, the U.S. Surgeon General’s office estimates. The products are popular with teens, with research indicating that as many as 1 in 4 high-schoolers use them.

Friedman and her team analyzed data on 18,000 teens and adults who participated in the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study between 2013 and 2018.

Participants between ages 18 and 24 who vaped non-tobacco-flavored products were more than three times more likely to smoke regularly as they aged than those who didn’t, researchers said.

“Our findings are consistent with the claim that non-tobacco-flavored e-cigarettes are more strongly associated with adult smoking cessation than tobacco-flavored e-cigarettes,” Friedman said.

The relapse study, conducted by researchers at the National Institutes of Health, found that long-term former smokers who used ENDS were nearly four times more likely to relapse and return to smoking tobacco products.

The findings were based on information from nearly 2,300 adult former smokers also enrolled in the PATH study.

“This study found that the use of ENDS and other tobacco products is associated with increased risk of cigarette smoking relapse among recent former and long-term former smokers who were free of tobacco product use,” the NIH authors wrote.

“Decreased time since quitting cigarettes increased the risk of cigarette smoking relapse,” they added.

“These studies add to other evidence suggesting that e-cigarettes will not be the final answer to the smoking pandemic that has taken so many lives and that remains a major threat to public health,” researchers at the University of Wisconsin wrote in a commentary accompanying the two studies. “However, e-cigarettes could, along with other strategies, play a role in the effort to mitigate the harms of smoking.”



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Almost 14 million U.S. adults vape, with use rising fastest in young

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The number of Americans using electronic cigarettes is soaring, especially among youth, a new study finds.

Nearly 14 million U.S. adults vaped in 2018, up from just over 11 million adults in 2016. The increase was seen in all socioeconomic groups, the researchers found.

“An increasing number of individuals are using e-cigarettes, especially in the younger age groups, which suggests that more individuals are becoming addicted to e-cigarettes rather than just experimenting with them, making the increased uptake among tobacco-naive individuals even more concerning,” said lead researcher Dr. Olufunmilayo Obisesan. She’s a postdoctoral fellow at Johns Hopkins Ciccarone Center for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease, in Baltimore.

“The increase in e-cigarette use among individuals with other health-risk behaviors is also concerning, particularly in light of the outbreak of e-cigarette or vaping use-associated lung injuries that has been linked to the vaping of tetrahydrocannabinoids [THC],” she said. THC is the main mind-altering ingredient found in marijuana.

Between 2016 and 2018, young adults aged 18 to 24 years old were the fastest-growing population to start using e-cigarettes. E-cigarette use in that age group increased from 9% in 2016 to 15% in 2018, and use among students increased from 6% in 2016 to 12% in 2018.

E-cigarette use even increased among people who had never smoked traditional cigarettes — from more than 1.4% in 2016 to 2.3% in 2018, the findings showed.

Also, people who were into other risky behaviors — such as drinking alcohol and smoking marijuana — were more likely to use e-cigarettes, the study authors said.

For the study, the researchers collected data on more than one million Americans who took part in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System for 2016 to 2018.

“Increase in e-cigarette use among adults in the U.S., particularly daily use, is reflective of the addictive potential of e-cigarettes,” Obisesan said. “This is very important to note, particularly for the youth and for individuals who currently use or are considering using them as a means of experimentation.”

The report was published online Sept. 8 in JAMA Internal Medicine.

Stanton Glantz, a professor of medicine at the Center for Tobacco Control, Research and Education at the University of California, San Francisco, said the increase in e-cigarette use is troubling because the health risks of e-cigarettes are similar to the risks linked to traditional cigarettes.

“I think there’s some things that are pretty clear now — one is in terms of lung disease. E-cigarettes are about as bad as cigarettes — you’re still breathing in ultrafine particles, heavy metals and flavors that have high pulmonary toxicity,” he said.

Glantz also pointed out that the damage e-cigarettes can cause in the lungs may also make COVID-19 infections more severe.

E-cigarette use has also been tied to an increased risk of heart disease, and in animal experiments, to cancer and DNA damage, he added.

The bottom line for Glantz is that e-cigarettes aren’t safe alternatives to regular cigarettes and often lead to dual use.

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has the power to regulate e-cigarettes, and they could actually ban them, Glantz said.

“The FDA can simply say, we’re not going to allow these products to be sold,” he said. “In order to sell e-cigarettes in the United States, you need to have what’s called a marketing order. If the FDA doesn’t grant a marketing order, then the product can’t be sold. If the product can’t be legally sold, that will solve the problem.”

More information

For more on e-cigarettes, head to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Copyright 2020 HealthDay. All rights reserved.



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Study: NSAID pain relievers don’t increase risk for severe COVID-19

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Sept. 8 (UPI) — People who use non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, or NSAIDs, to treat pain are not at risk for more severe illness from COVID-19, according to a study published Tuesday by the journal PLOS Medicine.

Among users of NSAID pain relievers like ibuprofen and diclofenac infected with the new coronavirus, nearly 25% needed to be hospitalized, 5% required admission to the intensive care unit and 6.3% died, the data showed.

To compare, for those who did not use these drugs but tested positive for COVID-19, 21% were hospitalized, 5% needed ICU care and 6.1% died.

In the early phases of the pandemic, there were concerns that the use of the painkiller ibuprofen may lead to a more severe course of coronavirus disease, the researchers, from the University of Southern Denmark and Aarhus University Hospital in Denmark, said.

“Considering the available evidence, there is no reason to withdraw well-indicated use of NSAIDs during the pandemic,” they wrote.

“However, the well-established adverse effects of NSAIDs, particularly their renal, gastrointestinal and cardiovascular effects, should always be considered, and NSAIDs should be used in the lowest possible dose for the shortest possible duration for all patients,” they said.

Ibuprofen and other NSAIDs are some of the most commonly used medications in the United States, with an estimated 30 million doses consumed and 70 million prescriptions administered annually, according to the American College of Rheumatology.

For this study, the researchers obtained data on all 9,326 Danish residents who tested positive for COVID-19 between Feb. 27 and April 29, including NSAID use, hospitalization, ICU admission and need for mechanical ventilation and acute renal replacement therapy.

Overall, 248 people — or just under 3% — of the patients included in the analysis had filled a prescription for NSAIDs within 30 days of their positive virus test, according to the researchers.

There was no association between disease severity and NSAID use, the researchers said.

Another study published Aug. 12 had similar findings.



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Low-dose electrical stimulation helps adults with dyslexia read, study finds

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Sept. 8 (UPI) — Electrical stimulation of the brain improves reading accuracy in adults with dyslexia, according to a study published Tuesday by PLOS Biology.

Transcranial alternating current stimulation, a non-invasive procedure that delivers low-dose electricity to the brain over a period of 20 minutes, was found to improve phonological processing — or ability to discern how words sound or are pronounced — and reading accuracy in 15 adults with dyslexia, the researchers said.

The beneficial effect on phonological processing was most pronounced in those individuals who had poor reading skills, while a slightly disruptive effect was observed in very good readers, they said.

Dyslexia, known commonly as a reading disorder, affects up to 10% of the population, and is characterized by lifelong difficulties with written material,” according to the researchers, who are from the University of Geneva in Switzerland.

Although several possible causes have been proposed for dyslexia, the predominant one is a phonological deficit, or a difficulty in processing word sounds, the researchers said.

The phonological deficit in dyslexia is associated with changes in rhythmic or repetitive patterns of electrical activity in the brain, specifically “low-gamma” oscillations, measuring at 30 hertz or volts, in the left auditory cortex, they said.

However, studies have yet to prove that these these oscillations affect a person’s ability to process word sounds and cause dyslexia, the researchers said.

For this study, the researchers applied transcranial alternating current stimulation over the left auditory cortex in 15 adults with dyslexia and 15 fluent readers for 20 minutes.

At a dose of 30 hertz or volts, the approach resulted in significant improvement in reading accuracy in those with dyslexia, the researchers said.

However, the same improvements were not seen following application of a higher, 60-hertz dose, they said.

The results demonstrate for the first time that low-gamma oscillatory activity causes deficits in phonemic processing and may pave the way to non-invasive treatments aimed at normalizing oscillatory function in auditory cortex in people with dyslexia, the researchers said.

They plan “to investigate whether normalizing oscillatory function in very young children could have a long-lasting effect on the organization of the reading system [and] explore even less invasive means of correcting oscillatory activity,” study co-author Silvia Marchesotti, a post-doctural researcher at the University of Geneva, said in a press release.



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