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Ancient societies collapsed when leaders ignored the social contract

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Oct. 16 (UPI) — When ancient societies formerly ruled by principles of good governance failed, they failed hard.

According to a new study published in the journal Frontiers in Political Science, ancient autocracies were less likely to last, but suffered less dramatic failures.

To better understand the role of government on the success and longevity of ancient societies, researchers took an in-depth look at principles that guided the governments of four societies: the Roman Empire, China’s Ming Dynasty, India’s Mughal Empire and the Venetian Republic.

Because free and fair elections were rare or nonexistent during ancient times, researchers had to come up with an alternative for gauging good governance.

“You can’t really measure it by the role of elections, so important in contemporary democracies,” study co-author Gary Feinman, the MacArthur curator of anthropology at Chicago’s Field Museum, said in a news release. “You have to come up with some other yardsticks, and the core features of the good governance concept serve as a suitable measure of that.”

“They didn’t have elections, but they had other checks and balances on the concentration of personal power and wealth by a few individuals,” Feinman said. “They all had means to enhance social well-being, provision goods and services beyond just a narrow few, and means for commoners to express their voices.”

For the ruling elite, good governance was a sensible choice. Most successful empires depended on taxes and resources from local economies, and thus their leaders had to meet the basic needs of their citizens.

“There are often checks on both the power and the economic selfishness of leaders, so they can’t hoard all the wealth,” Feinman said.

Researchers found societies with governments that were reasonably responsive to their people — governments that met the definition of good governance — tended to last a bit longer than autocratic governments.

However, researchers found that when good governments turned rotten, the breakup was often uglier than the collapse of autocratic governments.

According to the study, good governments fail more dramatically because the bureaucracy is more intimately integrated with society at large.

“Social networks and institutions become highly connected, economically, socially, and politically,” Feinman said. “Whereas if an autocratic regime collapses, you might see a different leader or you might see a different capital, but it doesn’t permeate all the way down into people’s lives, as such rulers generally monopolize resources and fund their regimes in ways less dependent on local production or broad-based taxation.”

Researchers also looked at why exactly good governments fail. They found the collapse of good governments was often triggered by the rise to power of amoral leaders — leaders who ignored the social contract and abandoned their society’s ideals.

Such betrayals often precipitated or accompanied rising inequality, concentration of political power, tax evasion, crumbling infrastructure and the decline of bureaucratic institutions — a pattern researchers suggest can be observed in modern societies.

“What I see around me feels like what I’ve observed in studying the deep histories of other world regions, and now I’m living it in my own life,” said Feinman. “It’s sort of like Groundhog Day for archaeologists and historians.”

Researchers suggest their findings are a reminder that even previously successful governments and prosperous, stable societies can fail when leaders abandon a society’s core principles.

“In the cases we address, calamity could very likely have been avoided, yet, citizens and state-builders too willingly assumed that their leadership will feel an obligation to do as expected for the benefit of society,” said lead study author Richard Blanton.

“Given the failure to anticipate, the kinds of institutional guardrails required to minimize the consequences of moral failure were inadequate,” said Blanton, a professor emeritus of anthropology at Purdue University.



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Fight judges favor aggression over skill, study shows

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Oct. 28 (UPI) — Often to the chagrin of fans and competitors, wrestling matches, boxing bouts, mixed martial arts and other types of combat competitions are frequently decided by judges.

That’s bad news for competitors that rely more on skill than vigor. New research suggests judges are more likely to award victory to aggressive fighters than skilled fighters, all else being equal.

For the study, published this week in the journal Biology Letters, researchers analyzed data collected from 550 men’s and women’s mixed martial arts contests organized by the Ultimate Fighting Championship.

The data included the percentage of strikes that landed firmly and accurately, a measure of skill, as well as the number of strikes attempted per second, a measure of vigor or aggression.

Regardless of the match conclusion, whether decided by knockout or judges’ decision, the data showed the victor was the more vigorous fighter. However, the correlation between vigor and victory was strongest for matches decided by the scores of the judges.

Fighting skillfully wasn’t entirely discounted. The data showed addition of skill enhanced the advantage of vigor, but the research showed vigor was the most important factor for fights decided by the judges.

“MMA is a fast paced sport and one of the suggestions from our research would be that judges may find vigor easier to assess than skill,” lead author Sarah Lane, postdoctoral research fellow at the University of Plymouth, said in a news release. “That, in turn, leads them to overvalue it when making their decisions, especially in longer fights where one fighter tires more quickly and the disparity in vigor is easier to spot.”

“The advance of technology such as instant replays could potentially counter this, but until they are employed more regularly rate of attack is likely to remain the most important performance trait for victory by decision,” Lane said.

The research was funded by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council, which supports studies focused on the role of skill in animal contests.

Most of Lane’s time is spent studying hermit crab fighting, but the authors of the latest paper suggest their analysis of human fights could have implications for understanding physical competitions among animals.

There aren’t typically knockouts in fights between rival animals. Often, males joust and tussle to demonstrate their physical dominance to would be rivals and mates. Like in boxing, a competitor’s performance is subjective.

“Human combat sports provide a unique scenario in which to explore how performance traits such as skill and vigor are perceived, both by participants and observers,” said study co-author Mark Briffa.

“However, because of the obvious communication issues, very little is known about the accuracy with which fighting animals more widely judge the abilities of their rivals,” said Briffa, a professor of animal behavior at Plymouth.



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Graphene-based memory resistors could pave the way for brain-based computing

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Oct. 29 (UPI) — Researchers have created a new computer component capable of toggling between 16 possible memory states — the kind of computing versatility provided by brain synapses.

The new component, called a graphene field effect transistor, described Thursday in the journal Nature Communications, could pave the way for advances in brain-inspired computing.

Modern computers are exclusively digital, featuring two states: on-off or zero and one. Engineers at Penn State University are working to build a computer that replicates the brain’s analog nature, capable of hosting many different states.

If a digital computer’s information processing components work like a light switch, toggling only between on and off, then an analog computer is like a light dimmer.

Scientists have been investigating the potential of brain-based computing for decades, but analog computers have been overshadowed by the advances in traditional computing power. However, the rise of big data and smart devices like self-driving cars has highlighted the need for more computing efficiency.

“We have powerful computers, no doubt about that, the problem is you have to store the memory in one place and do the computing somewhere else,” lead researcher Saptarshi Das, an assistant professor of engineering science and mechanics at Penn State, said in a news release.

All the movement of information required by the bifurcation of memory to logic in modern computers puts a strain on speed. It also requires more spaces. Das and his research partners estimate that their graphene field effect transistor can help eliminate this bottleneck.

“We are creating artificial neural networks, which seek to emulate the energy and area efficiencies of the brain,” said study first author Thomas Shranghamer.

“The brain is so compact it can fit on top of your shoulders, whereas a modern supercomputer takes up a space the size of two or three tennis courts,” said Shranghamer, a doctoral student in the Das group.

Brain synapses can be quickly reconfigured to create a variety of neural network patterns. Likewise, the new graphene field effect transistor, formed by a one-atomic-thick layer of carbon atoms, can be used to control 16 possible memory states.

Researchers were able to reconfigure the transistor, effectively toggling between memory states, by applying a brief electric field to the graphene layer.

“What we have shown is that we can control a large number of memory states with precision using simple graphene field effect transistors,” Das said.

Das and his research partners are now looking to work with semiconductor companies to attempt to scale-up the production of the new technology.



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Mars-sized rogue planet found drifting through the Milky Way

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Oct. 29 (UPI) — Astronomers have discovered a planetary free agent floating through the Milky Way, unbound to the gravity of any nearby stars. The discovery, detailed Thursday in Astrophysical Journal Letters, suggests the Milky Way may be teeming with rogue planets.

The new exoplanet, the smallest free-floating planet astronomers have found, is too small to be directly observed.

Researchers were able to spot the rogue world — which is somewhere between the size of Mars and Earth — with the assistance of a microlensing event.

“If a massive object — a star or a planet — passes between an Earth-based observer and a distant source star, its gravity may deflect and focus light from the source,” lead study author Przemek Mroz, a postdoctoral scholar at the California Institute of Technology, said in a news release. “The observer will measure a short brightening of the source star.”

“Chances of observing microlensing are extremely slim because three objects — source, lens, and observer — must be nearly perfectly aligned,” Mroz said. “If we observed only one source star, we would have to wait almost a million years to see the source being microlensed.”

To increase their odds of locating microlensing events, researchers rely on surveys. In this instance, astronomers utilized data collected by the OGLE survey, featuring a Chilean telescope and led by a team of astronomers at Warsaw University in Poland.

Every night, the OGLE survey’s 1.3-meter Warsaw Telescope scans the Milky Way center, home to hundreds of millions of stars, looking for changes in stellar brightness.

Thankfully, microlensing detection doesn’t depend on the lensing object’s brightness. It’s the lensing object’s mass that matters. The more massive the lensing object, the longer the microlensing event lasts. The microlensing event caused by the recently discovered rogue planet lasted just a few hours.

Researchers were able to calculate the mass of the rogue planet by measuring the light curve and duration of the microlensing event.

“When we first spotted this event, it was clear that it must have been caused by an extremely tiny object,” said study co-author Radoslaw Poleski, researcher at the Astronomical Observatory of the University of Warsaw.

Researchers were able to determine that the lensing object was likely less massive than Earth and about the same size as Mars. Astronomers were also able to determine that the object was without a host star.

“If the lens were orbiting a star, we would detect its presence in the light curve of the event,” said Poleski. “We can rule out the planet having a star within about 8 astronomical units — the astronomical unit is the distance between the Earth and the sun.”

Since OGLE found the first rogue exoplanet several years ago, the survey has discovered several planetary free agents floating through the Milky Way, but the latest — dubbed OGLE-2016-BLG-1928 — is the smallest rogue planet scientists have found.

“Our discovery demonstrates that low-mass free-floating planets can be detected and characterized using ground-based telescopes,” said Andrzej Udalski, principle investigator on the OGLE project.

Astronomers estimate rogue worlds were initially formed around stars inside protoplanetary disks, but were ejected by gravitational interactions with other young planets. By studying the size distribution of rogue planets, scientists expect to gain a greater understanding of planetary formation and evolution.



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